BA Short Storis





The Killers
Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway is a modern American writer. He is the most popular and the most widely read of all the American writers. His simple literacy style is very impressive. His technique of writing a short story is very unique. In his typical style he creates an atmosphere wherein isolated and nearly anonymous characters are put to illustrate the understanding and perception. This famous story ‘The Killers’ represents the same technique of the author. In the short story, Hemingway with the help of a very simple and direct language is successful to create a very powerful impact of death. His style keeps the reader bound till the end of the story.
In the story, Hemingway introduces two professional killers, Al and Max, who visit a restaurant to kill a person named Ole Anderson, a heavy weight boxing champion. The kills just want to kill him to oblige their friend. But luckily does not come to that restaurant in that evening. They leave the place but also behind them a looming shadow of death under which a reader experiences horror. In the story, Ole Anderson is an isolated character who because of some certain reasons has given up the struggle to escape from the killers. He is not a coward person. He is fed up of running from death. A Solomon acquisition to death ennobles his mind and he develops a spiritual readiness to accept an eventuality. The restlessness is projected not only in the mind of the character but that of the reader.

Al and Max the two professional killers entered a restaurant and placed some order after a long discussion with the waiter. They were dressed in black overcoats, silk mufflers, derby hats and gloves. They were in fact dressed like twins. Their order of ham and egg and bacon and egg was served. After they had finished eating they asked Gorge, the waiter to call the cook, the Sam. Al took the cook and another boy Nick Adams to the kitchen and tied them back to back there. At the gun point. Max sat at the counter. George asked him what all was about. He told George that they wanted to kill Ole Anderson when he came for supper in the restaurant. When George asked for the reason, max told him that it was just to oblige a friend. They waited for a few minutes more and then both of them went away.
When they left the restaurant, George rushed to the kitchen and untied the both .They were very anxious about Ole Anderson s' life. George sent Nick to Anderson s’ place to inform about the danger. A woman led him to Anderson s’ room. He was lying in his bed with all his clothes on. Nick told him that two men have come to restaurant to kill him when he came for supper. But Anderson did not show any sign of anxiety. He seemed to know the background of the whole matter. He kept on looking at the wall and said nothing. He thanked Nick Adam for coming there. Nick offered him help to save his life but Anderson told him that there was not anything to be done. He was tired of running from death. He was now ready to accept it





Questions on , “The Killers"
Bring out the elements of horror in the short story, "" The Killers"
Ernst Hemingway is a modern American writer. He enjoys a worldwide fame as a writer. His simple literary style is very impressive. His technique of writing a short troy is unique. Hemingway in his typical style creates an atmosphere wherein isolated and nearly anonymous characters are put to illustrate the understanding and perception. The Killers’ also represents the same technique of the writer. In a very simple and direct language, he creates a very powerful impact of death.
The horror and suspense is crated in the story by the strange behavior of two men. Their names were Al and Max. They came to the restaurant and sat at the counter. It was evening time. They placed their order for ham and egg and bacon and egg after a long discussion with George, the waiter. They were dressed in black overcoats, silk muffles, derby hats and gloves on hands. They were, in fact, dressed like twins. Their orders were served. After they had finished eating they asked George to call the cook. Al took cook and another bright boy, Nick Adam to the kitchen and tied them back to back at the gun point. Max sat at the counter. George asked them what was that all about. He told George that they wanted to kill Ole Anderson just to oblige a friend. They continued waiting for the arrival of Anderson but luckily he did not come at that particular evening. After their long time waiting, they left the restaurant but they also left behind them a looming shadow of death. A reader while going through the story feels the same horror felt by the character of the story.

Give a short description of the Henry s’ lunch room?
Henry s' lunch room had been turned from a saloon into a lunch counter. There was a big mirror behind the counter. It was not a very big restaurant and was just a place where common people came for lunch and supper. There was a door behind the counter which led into the kitchen. There were also two slits opening onto the kitchen from where orders were served and dirty plates were passed into the kitchen. There was a clock on the wall which was twenty minutes fast. The customers sat at the counter and ate their meals. Three persons worked n that restaurant. One was George, who was the waiter. The second was Nick Adam, who probably managed the place and the third was Sam who was the cook. The restaurant was located at a busy street
Describe the appearance of the two men who came to the restaurant?
The two men who came to the restaurant were Al and Max. They were quite rough and rude type of persons. They were dressed in black overcoats, silk mufflers, derby hats and gloves. The overcoats were too tight for them. They were in fact dressed like twins. They dresses were identical but their faces were different. They sat leaning forward with their elbows on the counter. Their behavior was rude and rough. They placed their orders of ham and eggs and bacon and eggs after a long discussion with the waiter. Their style of talking was very rude and they horrified George and Adams with their typical cowboy-type behavior and by telling them that they wanted to kill Ole Anderson just to oblige a friend. They ate their meals with their gloves on. After some time they left the place. George saw them going across the road. In their tight overcoats and derby hats they looked like Vaudeville team.

Describe Nick Adams’ visit to Ole Anderson?
After the e two killers, Al and Max left the place; George rushed to the kitchen and untied the cook and Nick. They were very anxious about the life of Ole Anderson. George sent Nick to Anderson s' place to inform him about the danger. A woman took him to Anderson s’ room. He was lying in his bed with full clothes on. Nick told Anderson that two men had come to the restaurant to kill him when he came for the supper. But Anderson did not show any anxiety. He seemed to know the background of the whole matter. He kept on looking on the wall and said nothing. He thanked Nick for combining there to inform him about the danger. Adams offered him his help to save his life but Anderson told him that there was nothing to be done now. He was tired of running from death. He was now ready to accept the death. Nick Adams came back but he was greatly anxious about Anderson s, life.
1.      Do you think that Ole Anderson is a coward fellow?
2.      Write a note on Anderson s’ sickness of life?

Rappaccini s' Daughter
 Nathanial Hawthorne
Nathanial Hawthorne is an American writer and novelist. He is regarded as one of the America s' representative novelists. Rappaccini s' Daughter" is one of his famous short stories. This story is a fantasy in which we come across a scientist who cares more for science than for mankind. He is ready to sacrifice everything for the sake of adding to his scientific knowledge. He is so much possessed by the scientific studies that he is devoid of his humanity. Such a selfish attitude has put all his scientific research to a wrong direction.
Rappaccini is a famous scientist. He develops a scientific formula by which certain poisons  are infiltrated in his daughter s' system which makes her immune  to all sorts of poison but at the same time they make her deadly poisonous , whose very touch kills the  touched. Unaware of this fact a student Giovanni falls in love with her and is doomed
Dr. Rappaccini has a garden of plants. It was said that he made medicines from those plants which were as powerful as magic. Giovanni saw this garden from the window of his room. He saw many strange type of plants growing there. There was also a pool in the middle of the garden. And many strange plants with large leaves grew around the pool. There was bush with purple flowers set in a stone jar in the middle of the pool. Its flowers were as beautiful as jewels. Soon he saw a tall, sickly looking man taking care of the plants. He was dressed in black. He examined each plant with great care but he did not touch any of them. It looked as if he was working among poisonous creatures. He even avoided the direct breathing of their smells. He went near the bush with purple flowers but was afraid to going too near. He called his daughter, Beatrice and asked her to take care of the plan. She embraced the plant and breathed its smell without any fear which surprised Giovanni.
During the day, Giovanni went to see Prof. Baglioni who was a friend of his father. He talked of the garden to Prof. Baglioni who told him that Rappaccini was a very dangerous scientist. He grew poisonous plants in his garden. He was said to have produced new kind of poisons, more dangerous than those found in Nature. When he returned to his room, Giovanni went straight to his window. He saw Beatrice in the garden. She was caressing the plants. She picked up a flower from the plant and as she was about to put the flower near her breast , a drop or two of water fell from the flower on the head of a small animal who happened to be near her. The animal died at once. Giovanni did not know whether to call her beautiful or terrible. On one occasion he threw a bunch of flower to her from the window but to Giovanni s' surprise, the flower began to die in her grasp.
One day Giovanni happened to go the garden and met Beatrice. Then their meeting became a matter of routine. He knew that Beatrice possessed terrible qualities.
Baglioni tried to save him from Beatrice but failed. He believed that Giovanni had been selected as a subject of some new experiments, the result of which was death. He wanted to save him as well as his beloved Beatrice. He gave him a medicine which could make them normal.
The regular meeting with Beatrice made Giovanni Poisonous. He noticed that his breath killed an insect in no time. He now realized that the love for Beatrice had made him a hateful creature. He cursed the deadly science of Rappaccini and its horrible effects on Beatrice. She requested him not to hate her because she was not responsible for all that. She told him that she loved him from the core of her heart. Giovanni gave her the medicine. She took the medicine and died in no time saying,
          "I would rather have been loved, not feared."




Is Rappaccini responsible for his daughter s' death?

Rappaccini s' Daughter “is a fantasy in which we come across a scientist who cares more for science than for anything else. He is ready to sacrifice anything for the sake of adding to his scientific knowledge. He is so much dominated by his scientific studies that he is devoid of humanity. Such an attitude has put all his scientific research to a wrong direction.
Unaware of this fact, a young student Giovanni fell in love with his daughter Beatrice who was an incarnate of beauty and innocence. Both of them started meeting each other. Their regular meeting made Giovanni poisonous. He noticed that his breath killed an insect in no time. He now realized that his love for Beatrice had made him a hateful creature. He cursed the deadly science of Rappaccini. Beatrice told Giovanni that she loved him from the core of her heart. Giovanni gave her the medicine that was given to him by Prof. Baglioni saying that it would remove the dangerous effects of poison and that it would make Beatrice normal. She took the medicine and died in no time saying this to her father:
                  "Why did you bring this terrible fate upon your child?"
Thus we see the last words of Beatrice themselves prove that she considered her father responsible for her death as well as for her horrible life.

Give a descriptions of Rappaccini s' garden?
Rappaccini was a famous doctor who was ready to sacrifice every thin for the sake of adding to his scientific knowledge. According to Prof. Baglioni, Rappaccini was a very dangerous scientist. He grew poisonous plants in his garden. He was said to have produced new kind of poisons, more dangerous than those found in nature.
Dr. Rappaccini had a garden of pants. It was said that he made medicines from these plants which were as powerful a magic. Giovanni saw the garden for first time from the window of his room. He saw many strange type of plants growing there. He looked at rather each plant more closely when he went to the garden to meet Beatrice. The garden was full of poisonous plants which bore signs of grate care. There was also a pool in the garden and many strange plants with huge leaves grew around the pool. There was a bush with purple flowers set in a stone jar in the middle of the pool. Its flowers were as beautiful as jewels. Giovanni saw a tall and sickly looking man taking care of the plants but did not touch any of them. It appears as if he was working among poisonous creatures. He even avoided the direct breathing of their smells. He went near the bush with purple flowers but was afraid of getting too near. He called his daughter and asked her to take care of the plant. She embraced the plants and breathed its smell without fear.
Describe the first meeting of Giovanni with Beatrice?

Giovanni had fallen in love with Beatrice on the first sight but he did not know whether to call her pretty or poisonous. He had seen with his own eyes that she embraced the poisonous bush without any fear which her father had carefully avoided. He had also seen the poisonous effects of her breath which killed the insect and drops of water falling from the purple flower of the bush killing an animal but causing no damage to her. Still he could not resist. One day he threw some flowers for her from his window which she thankfully accepted. He wanted to meet her, to talk to her and to see her closely.
One day the old lady Lisabetta, rather knowing his secret, told him that there was a private entrance into Rappaccini s' garden. He was greatly excited to hear that. He gave the old lady a coin and she took him to a door which opened into the garden.
She unlocked the garden and Giovanni found himself in the garden of strange plants. He started looking at the plants when Beatrice came there. She was also very excited to see him there. She told him about the plants. The conversation was mainly about the plants. While she spoke, there was a smell in the air in which the young man scarcely dared to breathe. Beatrice was very happy and fully enjoyed the conversation with the youth. She was like the maiden of a lonely island talking to a voyager. They took many turns among the garden paths. When they reached near the bush with purple flowers, Giovanni wanted to pick one flower but she caught his hand and pulled it back with all her strength. She told him not to touch the bush because it was poisonous. Then hiding her face, she ran away into the house.
1.      Critically analyze the ending of “The Rappaccini s’ Daughter?”


The New Constitution  
Sadat Hassan Manto
A nation may be weak or backward but national liberty is very sacred to it. Foreign rule is always condemned and hated. Foreigner rulers should, therefore, never expect love from the ruled
There was a time the English were very fond of ruling over the world. At those times, India was one of their colonies. The English rulers in India were quite callous and cruel to the natives. In turn the natives also hated them from the cores of their hearts.
The New Constitution; by Manto also exposes the same. It was being expected that Government India act, 1935, would bring about great political and social changes for the Indians. This story was written in 1938, and by hen it was fully realized that the new Act of 1935 had brought nothing to change. The story proved that Manto joined anti-imperialist struggle by establishing the fact that the British were hated in the United India because of their unjust racialism, bigotry and highhandedness
Ustad Mangu whose reputation as a knowledgeable man was well established among his fellow tongawalas waited anxiously for the promulgation of the Act to celebrate his freedom from the British. He thought that his rights as a human being as well as a citizen of India would be recognized and accepted.
Ustad Mangu was a completely illiterate person, still he was considered to be the wisest person among his fellows. It was because that he was always able to satisfy them about what was happening in the world. He hated the British because he believed that they were ruling the country against the will of the Indians. The gora soldiers of the cantonment area were responsible for his poor opinion of the British. They treated him worse than animals. He hated them very much. Once he had a bitter quarrel with a gora soldier, he remained depressed for many days. He could not bear even sight of them.
One day, he picked up two fares from the district courts. He gathered from their conversation that there was going be a new Act for India which would be enforced from the first of April
At last first April came. He was very excited. He prepared his Tonga and went out on the roads of Lahore. He wanted to see the changes with his own eyes. Ustad Mangu was a person who could not afford to wait. He just could not wait for things to take shapes. He wanted everything to happen quickly. When he was going to have his first child, he was unable to sit quietly and wanted to see the child even before it was born.
He was busy in tanking about the changes which the new act would bring about when he saw a gora soldier standing beside the lamp post. Ustad Mangu thought that it was the same gora who abused him last year. He wanted to take the revenge. He looked at the gora with great hatred. They exchanged a few unpleasant words but then Ustad Mangu raised his hand suddenly and gave him a terrible thrash. The gora cold not believe that it was really happening. A crowd had gathered there. Two policemen also arrived there and they rescued the gora. Ustad Mangu was taken to the police station. All the time he was crying, "New Constitution, New Constitution."
“What rubbish are you talking? What new constitution? It is the same old constitution, you fool", he was told. Then they locked him up.
What was the new constitution? What changes it would bring if promulgated?
There was an era when English were very fond of ruling over the world. At those times, India was one of their colonies. The English rulers in India were quite callous and cruel to the natives. In turn the natives also hated them from the cores of their hearts.
The New Constitution; by Manto also exposes the same. It was being expected that Government India act, 1935, would bring about great political and social changes for the Indians. This story was written in 1938, and by hen it was fully raised that the new Act of 1935 had brought nothing to change. The story proved that Manto joined anti-imperialist struggle by establishing the fact that the British were hated in the United India because of their unjust racialism, bigotry and highhandedness
Ustad Mangu whose reputation as a knowledgeable man was well established among his fellow tongawalas waited anxiously for the promulgation of the Act to celebrate his freedom from the British. He thought that his rights as a human being as well as a citizen of India would be recognized and accepted.
Ustad Mangu was a completely illiterate person, still he was considered to be the wisest person among his fellows. He hated the British soldiers too much. The gora soldiers of the cantonment area were responsible for his poor opinion of the British. They treated him worse than animals. Once he had a bitter quarrel with a gora soldier, he remained depressed for many days. He could not bear even sight of them.
At last first April came. He was very excited. He prepared his Tonga and went out on the roads of Lahore. He wanted to see the changes with his own eyes.
He was still busy in thinking about the changes which the new act would bring when he saw a gora soldier standing beside the lamp post. Ustad Mangu thought that it was the same gora who abused him last year. He wanted to take the revenge. He looked at the gora with great hatred. They exchanged a few unpleasant words but then Ustad Mangu raised his hand suddenly and gave him a terrible thrash. The gora cold not believe that it was really happening. A crowd had gathered there. Two policemen also arrived there and they rescued the gora. Ustad Mangu was taken to the police station. All the time he was crying, “New Constitution, New Constitution."
“What rubbish are you talking? What new constitution? It is the same old constitution, you fool", he was told. Then they locked him up.
      Discuss Mangu as a type character?
Ustad Mangu is type character. He is the representative of the common Indians. Like the commoners, he was very happy, when he heard about the new constitution. He thought that new constitution would bring a lot of changes in the whole of India. So he waited impatiently for the 1st April.
At last the 1st April came. On that particular day, Mangu rose earlier, set his Tonga and went out on the roads of Lahore. He wanted to see the changes with his own eyes. He had a fare to be dropped in the cantonment .There he saw a gora soldier, standing beside the lamp post. Ustad Mangu recognized that it was the same gora who had insulted Ustad Mangu publically. Now he thought that it was the best time to take revenge. He went near to him and exchanged some hot words with him. Suddenly, Ustad Mangu raised his hand and gave him a terrible thrash. The gora cold not believe that it was really happening. In a state of helplessness, the gora started screaming. A crowd had gathered there. Two policemen also arrived there and they rescued the gora. Ustad Mangu was taken to the police station. All the time he was crying, "New Constitution, New Constitution."
“What rubbish are you talking? What new constitution? It is the same old constitution, you fool", he was told. Then they locked him up.
1.      Give the character sketch of Ustad Mangu(Reproduce the summary)
2.      Ustad Mangu is painted as a fool. Support or refute the statement?
3.      Describe the encounter between Ustad Mangu and the gora Soldier
4.      Fight with the gora soldier is the climax of the story ...discuss?
5.      Why was Ustad Mangu so excited about the implementation of the new constitution? What did he expect of it?
6.      The New Constitution’ was no more than a piece of April foolery. Elaborate.


Breakfast
Breakfast" is a simple short story by John Steinbeck in which purity of living is described. The story is about a poor family willing to work happily for a little better living. The family has no complaints against anyone else on account of poverty. They are contented with whatever they earn. They had twelve days of work and even with that little income they have got new clothes. The old man 'chewed and swallowed' the breakfast and thanked God Almighty. They are enjoying each morsel of food. The Youngman told the writer, "We have been eating good for the twelve days. “The beauty and simplicity of the poor God -fearing people living upon cotton picking, a seasonal labor, has made this story interesting.
The writer once happened to go to a valley. It was a cold morning and he walked along a country road. He saw a tent. The writer went nearer and saw a young woman sitting beside a stove with a child in her lap. She was busy in making breakfast. The writer could feel the smell of frying bacon and baking bread. Soon two men came out of the tent. One of them was young and other was old. They faces were wet. They came near the stove and started warming their hands in the fire emitting from the stove. The water was slowly drying from their faces. They welcomed the writer. They sat around a packing case. The girl served the breakfast on the packing case. The old man invited the writer to have breakfast. The writer their offer readily and sat beside the packing case. Then they started talking and telling the writer that they were cotton picker and they were working there for the last twelve days. They also told the writer that even with their little wages, they had bought new clothes, they were passing a very satisfied life  and enjoying good food for the last twelve days. Soon they stood up and were ready to go to their work. They offered the writer to accompany them. The writer begged their pardon. They went together to their work and the writer walked towards the country road.
The writer could never forget the meeting. The reader is also passionately involved in the story. The writer has portrayed their acute poverty, making the reader fully conscious of the human s' feelings. He has a dream of self-sufficiency of the individual man which he very successfully illustrates in the story. The ending remarks of the story are very impressive, " That s' all, I know, of course, some of the e reasons why it was pleasant. But there were some elements of great beauty that makes a rush of warmth when i think of it."

Breakfast ' is a story pin- pointing the problems of seasonal laborers. Do you agree?
Breakfast' is a simple story by john Steinbeck in which he has definitely pointed out the problems of the poor seasonal labor who do not have a regular job and they are very happy and thankful to God when they have a job and when they are earning something. The story is about a poor family willing to work happily for a little better living. The family has no complaints against any one on account of their poverty. They are contented with whatever they earn. They had twelve days of work and they were very happy because they even got new clothes and they had been eating good for many days. The beauty and simplicity of the poor God fearing people living upon cotton picking, seasonal lab our, has made this story interesting. Non-availability of the means of living is a very serious problem of the poor workers particularly in the rural areas.
The writer could never forget the meeting. The reader is also passionately involved in the story. The writer has portrayed their acute poverty making the reader fully conscious of the human feelings. He has a dream of self-sufficiency of the individual man, which he very successfully illustrates in the story. The last remarks in the story are very impressive, "That s, all. I know, of course, some of the reasons, why it was pleasant. But there were some elements of great beauty, that makes a rush of warmth when i think of it,"

Describe the writer s' meeting with the poor family of laborers?

The writer once happened to go to a valley. It was a cold morning and he walked along a country road. He saw a tent. The writer went nearer and saw a young woman sitting beside a stove with a child in her lap. She was busy in making breakfast. The writer could feel the smell of frying bacon and baking bread. Soon two men came out of the tent. One of them was young and other was old. They faces where wet. They came near the stove and started warming their hands in the fire emitting from the stove. The water was slowly drying from their faces. They welcomed the writer. They sat around a packing case. The girl served the breakfast on the packing case. The old man invited the writer to have breakfast. The writer their offer readily and sat beside the packing case. Then they started talking and telling the writer that they were cotton picker and they were working there for the last twelve days. They also told the writer that even with their little wages, they had bought new clothes. They were passing a very satisfied life and enjoying good food for the last twelve days. Soon they stood up and were ready to go to their work. They offered the writer to accompany them. The writer begged their pardon. They went together to their work and the writer walked towards the country road.
The writer could never forget the meeting. The reader is also passionately involved in the story. The writer has portrayed their acute poverty, making the reader fully conscious of the human s' feelings. He has a dream of self-sufficiency of the individual man which he very successfully illustrates in the story. The ending remarks of the story are very impressive, " That s' all, I know, of course, some of the reasons why it was pleasant. But there were some elements of great beauty that makes a rush of warmth when i think of it."
1.      The story is a critique on the modern civilization?

Take Pity
                                   Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud is alive to the modern sensibility and writes about the social, cultural and economic problems of the 20th century. The world-wide depression of 1930 is a mile stone in American history and much literature has been produced in that background. The depression made people eat crunches of the bread from the garbage and kill each other for a paltry amount of money.
Take Pity “has also been written in the same background and exposes the same conditions of the life. In this story we read an undaunted struggle of a woman who after the death of her husband refuses every offer made to her in the form of charity. In spite of every effort he made to help her, Rosen s' attitude toward Eva is debased. Even his proposal is not based on true love. Eva is a representative character who takes a strong stance against the every effort made to her in the form of charity; she is an egoistic woman who wants to live using her own limited sources.
The story describes a gallant woman by the name of Eva who remains brave and optimistic till end and does not permit anyone to offer her out of pity. Eva is the widow of Axel Kalish. Axel makes some investment in his store in a desolated area which results in loss and Axel dies in debt. After his death, his widow Eva wants to run the store with his insurance money. Axel s' friend Rosen advises her to leave the place and find some job. He tells her that she is still young and charming and she should start a new life by making a new marriage. But Eva refuses because she thinks that nobody will accept her with her two daughters. She starts running the store with insurance money. She tries to reorganize the store with great labor but unfortunately she is not successful. And she does not come out of misery and poverty. In this situation Rosen tries to win over her. He offers her to leave the place and occupy his house where she can live comfortably with her daughters. He even tells her that there is a woman who will look after her daughters in her absence and she can easily do some job. But Eva turns down all the offers. She has a n unflinching faith in her struggle. She is hopeful that slowly her store will start giving her profit.
Rosen proposes her and tells her that after his death, they will share all his property. But Eva rejects her proposal as she knows that it is not based on true love. Her business continues to decline and her daughters become weak and pitiful. But she is not ready to accept charity from Rosen.. He finally makes a will according to which all his property will go to Eva and her two daughters. But Eva rejects re offer as well because she is not ready to accept anything in the form of charity. In the end it is proved that Eva is right and that Rosen does not have any true love for her. We find her standing defiantly before the window to raise her arms to Rosen who in turn shakes his fist toward her and abuses her badly.
Take Pity" describes an undaunted struggle of a brave woman, do you agree?
The world-wide depression of 1930 is a mile stone in American history and much literature has been produced in that background. The depression made people eat crunches of the bread from the garbage and kill each other for a paltry amount of money. Take Pity" has also been written in the same background and exposes the same conditions of the life.
In the story, we read an undaunted struggle of a woman, Eva. .She is a gallant woman who remains brave and optimistic till the end and does not permit to anyone to offer her help out of pity. Eva is the widow of Axel Kalish. Axel makes some investment in his store in a desolated area which results in loss. And Axel dies in debt. After his death, his widow Eva wants to run the store with his insurance money. Axel s' friend Rosen advises her to leave the place and find some job. He tells her that she is still young and charming and she should start a new life by making a new marriage. But Eva refuses because she thinks that nobody will accept her with her two daughters. She starts running the store with insurance money. She tries to reorganize the store with great labour but unfortunately she is not successful. And she does not come out of misery and poverty. In this situation Rosen tries to win over her. He offers her to leave the place and occupy his house where she can live comfortably with her daughters. He even tells her that there is a woman who will look after her daughters in her absence and she can easily do some job. But Eva turns down all the offers. She has an unflinching faith in her struggle. She is hopeful that slowly her store will start giving her profit. She remains persistent. She rejects all the charming offers made to her by Rosen and continues her struggle with the hope of better time.


Why did Eva reject Rosen s’ offers. Do you think she was justified in doing so?
In the story the famous writer Bernard Malamud very successfully projects the undaunted struggle of a brave woman. Eva is a widow of Axle Kalish. After her husband s' death, she determines to continue running the store, despite her all efforts her business is running in loss. But she does not lose heart and is hopeful that the sore would start giving profit. Rosen an ex coffee salesman exploits the situation and tries to help her and her two daughters. He adopts different ways to help her. But this brave woman does not accept his offers. She knows that all the offers made by Rosen are not based on true love
In the end of the story we see that she is standing outside his window raising her arms to him. But he, in response, abuses her severely and closes the window with a bang. Here it is proved that all offers made by him were not based on true love. Eva was quite justified in her stance.
1.      Take Pity’ critiques the idea of male superiority. Give your own opinion?

The Happy Prince
      By Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde was born in Dublin. He was the son of Sir William Wilde, a doctor of distinguished reputation. Oscar was recognized as a fine classical scholar even during his school life and he won a number of distinctions during his college carrier. He is a very prominent writer of the 19th century.
The Happy prince" is one of his representative stories. .It has a fairy tale mode of expression. It creates a world which is ideal and non- imitative. But this fairy tale is not separated from the surroundings realities of the Victorian Age. It rather discusses all the problem of Victorian Age such as poverty, hypocrisy and exploitation
Modern critics have expressed their opinion on the dark psychological motives of these stories. The story is about the statue of a prince standing very high in the middle of the city. It was very beautiful. It was all covered with thin foils of gold. Its eyes were made of glowing sapphires and its sword was bearing a precious ruby.
The story is about a prince who was very happy when he was alive because he enjoyed all the luxuries of life and he could not see the sufferings of the human beings. When he was dead and his statue was fixed on a high pillar in the middle of the city he could look at the human difficulties and miseries he could now see with his own eyes poverty, disease and hunger of the poor and the needy. The story describes the unnatural distance between the people and the rulers a result of which the problems and difficulties of the common people remain hidden from the view of the princes and the kings. And when they come to know about the problems, some of them like the happy prince try to solve them but it is usually too late by then.
Being fixed on a high Colum in the middle of the city, he was able to see all the sorrows of the humans. But he was unable to do anything for them. One day a little swallow comes to him. The prince requests the swallow to tear the foils of gold and ruby from its body and distribute them to the poor and the needy. The little swallow does the same. Gradually the prince becomes ugly outwardly. He even becomes blind. The corporation authorities of the city think that it has become very ugly and they tear down the statue. It is melted in the foundry but the leaden hat of the statue would not melt. The workers throw it away and it falls beside the body of swallow. The angles from the heaven pick both of them to the heaven. Both of them acquire permanent pleasure.

 What is the role of the little Swallow n the story?
The happy prince is not a living prince. He is a statue of the prince fixed on a tall column in the middle of the city. It is the statue of the dead prince with the soul of the prince in it. He is decorated with gold leaves and precious stones. There is a smile on his lips. People call him the happy prince because of this smile. He is a supernatural character, because he can see, hear and speak. Standing on the top of the tall column, he can see the miseries of the people of his city. And at his heart, he is greatly moved .He wanted to help the poor and the needy people but he could as he was fixed at a place. A swallow passed by him and stayed for a night at the feet of the happy prince. The prince requested the little swallow to be his messenger.
The little swallow became the friends of the prince. On the command of the prince, he distributed his god and precious stones among the poor and the needy. Through his messenger he gave away all his wealth.  The prince lost his outer beauty, but got the inner beauty, i.e. the beauty of soul. The little swallow died as the weather became harsher. The heart of the price broke at the death of the little swallow. The swallow and the broken heart of the prince were picked by the angle of the heaven. God Almighty appreciated the right choice of the angle.

Discuss the Happy Prince as a fantasy?

Fantasy is a fairy tale far away from the realistic approach of life. In a fantasy every impossible work becomes possible. But Wilde has blended the fantasy with the bitter realities of Victorian Age. The Victorian age was a critical era of the human history. This era was full of problems such as poverty, hypocrisy and exploitation.
In this context The Happy Prince fulfills all the requirements of the fantasy. In a fantasy the statues can weep, the swallows can help the poor and the needy.
There was a prince who was labeled as happy prince by his friends and followers as he, all the time, remained busy in dancing, singing and in drinking. When he was alive he did not know what the miseries of the life where. He thought that always was right with the world. He had never seen beyond the walls of his comfortable palace. When he died, he was converted into a statue and was fixed in the middle of the city on a high column. Being high, he could see the miseries of the common people. He was so disturbed, that he stated weeping.
A swallow came there and attached with the happy price. The prince requested to give away   gold leaves and precious stone fixed on his body, to the poor and the needy. The little swallow obeyed the prince. Gradually the people became happier, but the statue became uglier outwardly. But at the same time he got inner beauty- the beauty of soul.
The purpose of this fairy tale or fantasy is too criticized the Victorian age. So to speak the story is a satire on the Victorian age.
1.      Discuss the elements of humour and irony in “The Happy Prince?”
2.      The Mayor calls Happy Prince “Little better than a beggar.” Why?


Araby  
James Joyce
James Joyce is a famous Irish Novelist and short story writer. His story “Araby" describes a conflict between the objective world and the subjective feelings of a hardly young boy and it ends up with a passionate resolution of the defeat of the central character at the hand of the world. In this story the writer makes a psychological observation of the human problems in the modern life. The story depicts a conflict between the world of reality and the world of dreams. It tells us as to how a boy, who is hardly young, falls prey to the beauty of a girl and his love for her gives him nothing but disappointment. It is only one sided love and the girl even does not know of his feelings.
There was a young boy who lived in a lonely street. He used to play in the street with other boys. One of these boys was Mangan who also lived in the same street. Mangan s' sister usually came out on her door to call her brother. The young boy looked at her and was greatly impressed by her beauty. He started loving her in his heart. He used to wait for her to go school. As soon as she came out of her house, the young boy followed her and when they reached at a point at which their ways diverged, he quickened his pace and passed her. This happened morning after morning. H did not have the courage to express his love to her. It was rather because he was too young for that. He used strange methods to express his love. Sometimes he would stand at the railing of his house and imagined her to be there. Sometimes he would repeat her name again and again. He would even weep when he was unable to see her.
At last he happened to talk to her one day. She asked him if he was going to Araby. He was so confused that he did not remember whether he said yes or no. She further said that it was a splendid bazaar and that she would love to go there. He promised that if he went there he would bring her something.
Now the idea of going to Araby, dominated him and he wanted to go there as soon as possible. His aunt permitted him to go there on Saturday evening. On Saturday, he waited anxiously for the evening because his uncle was to come in the evening to give him money for the bazaar .But unfortunately; his uncle came very late because he had forgotten. He did not even give him any money and the boy went out for Araby only with a small coin in his pocket. At last, he reached Araby. Nearly all the bazaar had been closed but a few stall were still opened. He liked a vase for the girl but it was very expensive and he did not have enough money in his pocket to buy it.
Thus he returned home without purchasing anything for her. Gazing up into the darkness he saw himself as a creature driven and derided by vanity and his eyes burned with anguish and anger.

The Tell-Tale Heart   
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe is perhaps the most complex American writer. He can create an atmosphere of horror, strange fantasies and psychological abnormalities. While describing the normal episodes, he often catches reader unaware into some kind of nightmare which does not let the reader to go thereafter. A reader then experiences the world of horror and specter with him. amains an atist who takes art for  its purity and neatness and deliberately chooses him themes to create an effect which he intends to create at will.
The story “Tell Tale Heart" is also a story with horror and suspense. In the very beginning of the story the writer surprises the reader by declaring that he wished to kill the old man only because he did not like one of his eyes. The reader does not expect it so fast, not so early in the story thus he haunts the reader throughout the story. The story also tells us how a murderer who could have saved himself easily and everything was going his way but he could not face the prick of his conscious in the form of his loud heart beat and confess his crime before the police.
The murderer tells his story in detail. He tells us that he is not mad. He planned everything very carefully. The murderer had a friend. He was an old man and the murderer did not like one of his eyes because it was like the eye of a vulture. The murder loved the old man but his eye was repulsive to him. He could not just bear it. Thus he decided to kill him in order to get rid of his eye. He made proper planning for this. He continued trying to kill the old man for seven nights. He would open the door of his room very carefully every night just at midnight but he could not kill him because he always found his eye closed. It was that because he did not dislike the old man s' evil eye opened. He wanted to enter the room but his thumb slipped on the fastening of the lantern and the old man sprang up in his bed, crying out “Who is there? The murderer kept himself still for about an hour. Then he heard the sound of his groaning. His own heat was beating very loudly threw a ray of light from the lantern on him. It fell on the evil eye. It was open. This infuriated him. He fell on him at once, dragged him on the floor and pulled the heavy bed on him. The old man was dead because of the suffocation. He cut the corpse into pieces, took up three planks from the floor and deposited the pieces of the dead body there. He made everything just normal so that no one could doubt anything wrong.
When he had finished his work, three policemen arrived. A shriek had been heard by a neighbor and they had come to check. The murderer, however, satisfied them that the shriek had been uttered by him in a dream and the old man had gone to the village. The policemen were satisfied and sat down just for a chat. In the meantime the heart of the murderer started beating so loudly that it became intolerable for him. He was, in fact, in the grip of his conscience and had no way out except to confess his crime before the police.

Is the killer in the story a mad man?  Sane or insane?
It is a story full of horror and suspense. The killer tells the story how he went to the old man s' room at mid night. He opened the door very carefully but his thumb slipped from the fastening of the lantern and the noise awakened the old man sat up his bed peering into the darkness. The killer waited for about an hour but the old man did not lie down to sleep. It seemed he was alarmed. The killer could not bear the suspense. He darted a thin gleam of light on the old man s' face. It caught the vulture eye. The killer flew into a fury. He pulled the old man down and suffocated him under the heavy bed. Then he chopped the body into pieces and concealed the pieces under the wooden planks of the floor. He did all this dirty job vey quietly and neatly. The work done by him cannot be done buy any insane person. So, the killer cannot be regarded as a mad man. But the reason for which he kills the old man is not sound enough for the murder. A normal man cannot commit murder for such flimsy reason. Nobody in his senses can kill a man just for his ugly appearance. Therefore the killer is not a normal man in full possession of his senses. The reason for which the killer confesses the murder is again inadequate. It is impossible for human heat to go on beating after death. But the killer in the story says he clearly heard the dead old man s' heart beating under the floor.
On the base of these two reasons, we can say that the killer is not a normal man. There is something seriously abnormal and dangerous in the nature.
1.      How the murderer in the story is forced to confess his crime?

What happens after the murder?
At 4'O clock, the killer had disposed of the old man s' dead body. Just then there came a knock on the door. He opened the door. Three police men entered the room. They told him that some of the neighbors had reported a cry during sleep. He told that the old man was not at him.
The police men searched the room but found nothing to rouse the suspicion. The killer felt so safe that he began to chat with them. Suddenly he started the heartbeat of the old man s' heart coming from the dead body. He tried to keep cool but the noise became louder and louder. He thought that the policemen were also hearing that noise. He got so nervous that he confessed the crime and handed himself over the police.
This part of the story reveals the effect of fear on the emotions of a weak man after committing a crime. Some people cannot bear the prick of the conscious. Forced by the prick of their conscious they reveal the inner feelings. So, same happens to the killer. He is unable to bear the prick of his conscious, so he confesses his crime to the policemen.

The Necklace             
G.D Maupassant
G.D Maupassant was a French novelist and short story writer. In 'The Necklace’, he displays all the qualities which distinguish him as a master artist of short story writing
.This story shows the perfection of his writing skills. The story exposes that in human life, chance sometimes, is more powerful than human resolution. It is man s' destiny.
Mrs. Loisel was an imaginative type of woman. She was strikingly beautiful and lady - like but she belonged to a poor family and therefore she had no opportunity of being rich or wealthy one in her life. As a result she was married to a poor clerk. This depressed her and she and she would often think about rich houses, beautiful dresses, ornaments and the luxuries of an aristocratic life. She thought that she was born for all this with the result that she did not lead a happy life and in the house she lived appeared to her dull and boring. She had a rich friend, Mrs. Frostier but she did not go to see her because of her poverty.
One day, her husband brought an invitation for a ball at the minister s' house. He was very excited because he was among a few lucky employees who had been able to get the card. He thought that his wife would be also happy to get it. But she threw the card spitefully on the table and told her husband that she would not be able to go because she did not have any dress to put .She was very sad and started weeping. Her husband consoled her and asked her how much she need for a good dress. She said that it would cost her at least four hundred franc. He husband gave her the money he had kept himself to buy a gun. However the dress was prepared but she was again sad. Her husband was surprised to see her behaving strangely. On asking she told that she did not have any jewel to put on with the dress. First the husband suggested that she should wear some fresh flowers but on her refusal, he suggested that she should borrow some jewel from her friend, Mrs. Frostier. She went to her friend and borrowed a diamond necklace and she was very happy to get it.
The day of the party arrived. Mrs. Loisel was a great success. She was the prettiest of all. All the men looked at  her, asked her name and wanted to be presented. All the members of the cabinet wanted to dance with her. She danced with enthusiasm, with passion, intoxicated with pleasure thinking of nothing in the triumph of her beauty.
She went home towards four of clock in the morning. She went in front of the mirror to have a final view of her beady but she suddenly uttered a cry. Her necklace was not around her neck. Her husband searched it everywhere but all in vain. They decided to replace the necklace. After a week s' struggle, they were able to find a necklace exactly identical to the one which was lost. Its price was thirty six thousand franc. Loisel possessed eighteen thousand franc. The rest they had to borrow. They borrowed it from whosoever they could. They bought the necklace and returned it to Mrs. Frostier.
After this their life was most miserable. They shifted to a cheaper house to save money. Now she had to do all the house work by herself. Loisel did part time job to earn more money. Their life had become more miserable. They looked quite old. It took them ten years to repay the money but at last they cleared it all. Mrs. Loisel often thought how life would have been different for them if the necklace had not been lost. The story touches the peak when one day Mrs. Loisel came across Mrs. Frostier and knew from her that the necklace which was lost and or which they had suffered so long was fake one costing no more than five hundred franc.

Write the character sketch of Matilda
Matilda is a young and beautiful wife of Mr. Loisel a clerk n the board of education. She is proud of her elegant beauty. She is unhappy with her poor lot. She thinks that she is the victim of the social injustice and irony of fate. She is unhappy with her husband s' small income, house and old furniture. She feels she has been deprived of the comforts of life which she might have enjoyed by marrying a rich man. In short she is she is sick and ashamed of her present miserable life. But all this does not mean that she does not love her husband. Of course, she loves him deeply though much of the credit for this goes to the husband. He does his best to make him as happy as he can afford. He puts up with her foolish demands and yields to all her stupid dreams. The loss of the necklace proves a turning point in the development of her character. It makes her a responsible woman. Matilda thus lays two different roles in the story. Before the loss of the necklace, she is a thoughtless, ungrateful, proud beauty unhappy with the poverty of her husband. After the loss, she becomes a mature, humble and grateful wife who can gladly sacrifice every pleasure to get her husband out of his financial misery. This change in her character makes her a loveable character in spite of all her faults and follies.
 Write the character sketch Mr. Loisel?
Mr. Loisel is a clerk in the board of Education. His role in the story is the role of noble hero. His love and sacrifice for a proud and ungrateful wife makes him a lovable character. He knows that his wife dies not respect him. Still he loves and obeys her. He does his best to make her life comfortable. He never rebukes her for her insulting attitude. He does not reproach her for the loss of the necklace. His behavior after the loss is the behavior of an ideal partner---- a really great man. He does not grumble instead he manfully face the misfortune. H almost sells himself away to pay for the loss. He works day and night to repay the heavy loan. He goes through the worst fo his ungrateful wife. And yet he never complains, never blames her for his misery. In short he is an n ideal life partner. He is surely a character to be loved and remembered.
Loisel is one of the few lovers who remain lovers even after marriage. Usually a love marriage soon leads to disillusionment resulting in dissolution. Matlida is lucky to have Mr. Loisel as her husband. He loves her so much that more than none of her foolish pranks annoys him. He gladly faces the bitter consequences of his foolish wife s' acts of folly. He is a character to be admired and loved.



The Duchess and the Jeweler
Virginia Woolf was famous English novelist, critic and essayist. She was the daughter of an eminent Victorian critic, Sir Leslie Stephen. This story, from the beginning to the end is bedecked with beautiful and evocative words, phrases and sentences, that it looks like an effort to realize the adequacy of prose.
The Duchess and the Jeweler" is one of those stories which are set in the sensibility and historicity of their own days of England: the high ups are coming down. The nobility is suffering from the moral decadence and the commoners have taken the lead in spite of their psychological fixation. The writer also points out that the English are ignoring the fact that they are ebbing away from the moral values.
The Duchess and the Jeweler" describes only an single incident in the life of Oliver Bacon---- his meeting with the Duchess but it has been portrayed in such a way that it illuminates the entire background of the main character of the story through his mental recollections and flash backs.
Oliver bacon started his life in filthy little alley. He was poor and used to sell stolen dogs to rich ladies. He was caught and his mother scolded him out of it. After that he went behind a counter and started selling cheap watches. Then he took some precious stones Amsterdam. This was a big opportunity and he made a great fortune. Gradually, he continued going up in his business and eventually became a very successful jeweler famous in Europe and America. He had become very rich yet he was not satisfied. He still missed something. He went to his shop in the morning and sat in his private office at the back of the shop.
One day, when he reached his office, the Duchess of Lambourne came to see him. She was asked to wait for ten minutes. Then she was shown in. She was dressed in the height of the fashion. She was a very clever woman and she had come to sell ten pearls to him for twenty thousand pounds. These pearls, in fact, false but she did not allow him to check the pearls as she very cleverly involved him in the thoughts of her daughter, Diana whom he loved. She invited him to come and have chat with Diana at the coming week-end. The jeweler overpowered with love, wrote out a cheque for tweFnty thousand and signed it. The Duchess took the cheque and went away. After her departure when he examined the pearls, he came to now that they were false. The Duchess had cheated him very cleverly but he was happy with the idea that he would have long week-end with Diana.
1.      Things are rotten at the center and rotten at the core, discuss?
2.      The Duchess is more loathsome than the Jeweler. Comment.

Shadow in the Rose Garden
This short story is about unfulfilled love of a woman. She could not marry the person she loved and could not love the person she married. She was in love with a military officer named Archie. They both loved each other from the core of their hearts. Archie went to North Africa on a war mission. He was reported to have died due to sunstroke. On the very day the woman married the person who was an electrician in a mine. But she could not love him. Frank was a short stature fellow and also low in status than her. But he was a healthy, smart and a man full of life. He loved his wife. But his wife remained sad and nostalgic.
After three year of marriage, on her wife suggestion, they went to sea side for honey moon. That was the very area where she lived before her marriage and had passed happy and loved moments with her lover, Archie. She wanted to see that place and revive her past. Her present husband knows nothing about this story. She often stands in the window opening towards sea and stared hour long at the sea.
One morning, her husband was in a happy mood. He rose earlier and got ready but his wife was still in bed. He wanted to go out with his wife. He saw that she was standing in the window, he threw some flowers to attract her but seeing him she moved away. He asked her to go out for stroll with him but she refused. In angry mood, he took his hat and went out.
After his departure, she secretly went out and reached the rose garden. The garden belonged to a rector s' family. The gardener stopped her and said that she was not allowed to enter the garden as it was not a public place. But on her request, he allowed her to stay for a little time in the garden. She entered the garden and looked at the house adjacent to the garden. The house was inhabited now and the windows were curtain less. This was rector s' house and Archie was the rector s' son.
She sat in the garden. Suddenly, she saw a shadow moving towards her. The shadow was in military uniform. She recognized that it was Archie. The shadow came and stayed in front of her. He tried to recognize her but could not as he had gone mad, a lunatic. The situation became painful and intolerable for her when she came to know that Archie had not died but still alive. After sometimes, the gardener came and took that man away.
Full of catharsis, she told all story to her husband. He came to know the real reason that why his wife could not love him. He took hat and left the room.
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1.      The wife in, “The Shadow in the Rose Garden cannot help digging her past. Discuss.

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One Act Play Bear


ONE ACT PLAYS
THE BEAR
Anton Chekhov
Anton Chekhov is a great Russian Writer but today he is very famous out of Russia. A very important feature of the Anton Chekhov s’ plays is that there is no action in his plays but there is an emotional accompaniment of the action. His famous play, ‘The Bear’ is a farce, full of fun, noise and laughter
There are two characters in the play who act in a strange way with each other. Their contrasted attitude produces laughter.  The writer, in this play, makes fun of both the sexes, male and female. Both the character wants to prove their superiority and consistency in love over each other but in the end both of them go against their words. When we start reading the play, we come across Popova who is weeping for her dead husband since the last seven months. She says that she would never marry again in her life and she would not go outside to see others.
Then comes Smirnov, a retired military officer and a feudal, who demands his money back from her. This money was taken as loan by her husband in his life. But Popova in deep mourning and she is not ready   to pay attention in money matters. She asks him that she would not give him any money today but the day after tomorrow as her steward was not there. But Smirnov wants his money just now as he has to pay the interest by tomorrow. On this issue, there goes a hot discussion between the both. He says that he will take his money today but she says that she would pay the money the day after tomorrow. Both of them abuse each other very severely. She says that men are inconstant in love and women are constant in love. She even abuses her dead husband for not being loyal to her. She shower slime over the men. In response, Smirnov, curses the women for not being sincere in love. He furthers his point of view by saying that even sparrows can be more loyal than to women.
At last it is decided to fight a duel to settle the issue down. Luka the maid servant is terrified to the marrow of his bone. He rushes outside to call the other servants s to save the pair from destruction. She asks Smirnov to teach her how to fire. He start teaching her. In the meantime both of them fall in love with each other and are ready to marry.
Note: The above mentioned details may be the answer to the following questions
i) Discuss the play as a farce?            Ii) The play is full of humor and laughter—discuss?

Character sketch of Popova
Popova is the central character of the play. She is the heroin of the play. She is a contrasted character; there is a difference what she says and what she acts. In the beginning pages of the play , we find her as the most virtuous lady of the world. She is an incarnate of loyalty in love. Since the seven months of her husband s’ death, she is weeping and shows intention that she will go on wiping throughout her life. Her servant Luka tries to make her understand that she is still young and can restart her life by marrying again. But she refuses strictly by saying that life has lost its meanings for her after the death of her husband. She says that she will meet no one and will never see the light
In the meantime, there comes Smirnov, a feudal and retired military officer. He demands his twelve hundred Rubles which he had given her dead husband. But she says that she will pay the money the day after tomorrow as her steward is on the leave. She even abuses her dead husband for not being sincere in love, even before a person who just visits for one day at her house. She says that all the men of the world are insincere in love. Only women are sincere in love. But one is taken aback, when one sees her embracing Smirnov in the end of the play. She is even ready to marry him.
1.      Popova catches our attention by not what she says but what she does?


Character sketch of Smirnov
The one act play , ‘The Bear’ is a farce in which characters have been drawn as caricatures. Smirnov is also a comic character. He is a retired military officer and a land lord. He stands for a bear just because of his bear like attitude and bullish nature. He is rightly called as a bear by Popova. The title of the play also signifies the same.
He is ride and rough in behavior. He does not even know how to behave before the ladies. He even uses bad words for women. He says that women are liars, backbiters, inconstant in love. He also describes his own follies made by him in the youth. He wasted much money and time on the tender feelings of love.
He decides to fight a duel with Popova in order to settle the matter down. He becomes his instructor and try to teach her how to fire. In the meantime his feelings about women change and he falls in love with Popova with whom he was very angry at the beginning of the play. He even forgets his loan and is ready to marry her. This sudden transformation in the behavior of the main character is the real charm of the play. Outwardly he is rough and rude but he is not bad at hear.
1.      Discuss the elements of humour and absurdity in “The Bear”?
2.      How does Smirnov make a fun of Popova in this play?

THE BOY COMES HOME
A.A. Milne
Alan Alexander Milne was a famous comedy writer. The Boy Comes Home’ was written by him at the end of the 1st world war.
The play in question is light comedy which tells us about the generations gaps.  There are two main characters in the play; one is uncle James who represents the old generation, the other is Philip who represents the young generation. Uncle James is a bullying and rigid type of man while Philip is a young boy with revolutionary ideas. The old generation thinks that they are right all the time and they have the authority to impose their will on the younger generation. But the younger generation with the revolutionary ideas is not ready to lead by the nose by the old generation. This contrast projects laughter in the course of the play and the reader is forced to smile while going through the play.
Philip is the ward of Uncle James because his father has died , Uncle James who is a very so called strict fellow wants to impose his so- called rules and regulation on Philip, as he knows that Philip is forced to comply with him.  Uncle James boasts that he has the purse string as regard to Philip. According to the will, he cannot use his money until he reaches the age of 22 years.
Philip is unable to follow these strict rules and regulations of his uncle and he wants to live of life of his own. He wants to take the breakfast, lunch dinner whenever he wants. He wants to smoke cigarettes. He does not want to go the business of his uncle. One day in the morning, uncle James makes up his mind to make Philip understand to follow him if he wants to live in this house.


1.      Write a note on the nature of conflict b/w Philip and James?


1 comment:

  1. sir here are only 2 plays we found, please guide some about remaining two plays as well, thanks.

    ReplyDelete