BA Modern Essays

The Old Man and the Sea.                             BA pol.science guess 2017 annual
The Happy Prince                                          BA English One Act Plays
The Necklace                                                 BA English All Poems Contexts
Take Pity                                                        Multi Topic Essay
Tell Tale Heart
Araby
Breakfast
Rappaccini Daughter
Nagasaki


Modern Essays

Are Doctors Men Of Science?
My Grandfather
Walking on the Moon
Take the Plunge
Whistling of Birds
The Eclipse
Hosts and Guests
Bachelor s' Dilemma
On Saying Please by Alpha of the Plough
To Err Is Human by Lewis Thomas
Super
The Vitamins, Dr. Kenneth Walker
BA education and journalism guess papers



PAKISTAN and the Modern World
                                                            Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan was the first prime minister of Pakistan. He was the right hand of the Quai –e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
This essay named “Pakistan and the Modern World” is an extract from his speech delivered at the University of Kansas in America when he was being bestowed on an honorary degree. There he advocated the case of Pakistan very successfully. Liaquat Ali Khan was an eloquent orator. He threw light on the reasons which brought about the creation of Pakistan. He also discussed the problems faced by this new born state.
Liaquat Ali khan told the Americans that the creation of Pakistan was a very wise step and it had removed the tensions in Asia. Creation of Pakistan was going play a very important role in stabilizing Asia. He also invited the role of the U.S.A and that of the West to share their stock of experience and knowledge for the progress and well-being of Pakistan. He told that Pakistan passed through the same experience through which America had passed two centuries ago.
He suggested that they should defy aggression everywhere. They must realize their responsibility of the world peace. They should arrange a constructive outlook. The Americans should particularly assist the people of Pakistan to preserve their liberty. They should also help the people of Pakistan to preserve their living standards so that they may really enjoy the fruit of their independence.
This speech of Liquat Ali Khan proved that he really wanted to establish good relations with America


What were the reasons or circumstances which led to the creation of Pakistan, as per Liaquat Ali Khan, the first PM of Pakistan?
Liaquat Ali Khan delivered a very successful speech over there. He very successfully pleaded the case of Pakistan just like a successful lawyer. He convinced the Americans about the creation of Pakistan. He told one by one all the reasons that why the creation of Pakistan was inevitable.
First of all he told that in the united India, there lived two nations who were the followers of two different religions. The Muslims believed in the ones of God and His last Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH). Contrary to that, the Hindus believed in many gods and goddesses and there was not concept of prophet hood at all. So, it was very difficult to live both the nations and followers of two different religions under one democratic rule and the creation of Pakistan became inevitable,
Secondly, in the united India, Muslims were in minority whereas Hindus were in majority. It meant, if the Muslims got freedom from the British rule, it would not be called a true freedom. It would mean only the change of the masters as Hindus replaced the British. So, Muslims demanded for a separate homeland for themselves.



The economic outlooks of the two nations were quite different. The Muslims had their own laws of inheritance. The Muslims believed in the circulation of the wealth. The economic set up of the Hindus promoted the system of unearned accumulation of wealth. They gathered the wealth and gave it to others on high interest rate. The wealth was curtailed only to a few people.
The sub-continent was too large to manage under one unit. If it was done so, it might have created many problems politically and administratively. So, it became inevitable to divide the subcontinent into two sovereign states.
Hindus believed in the cast-system whereas the Muslim believed in the equality of all human beings. Hindus thought it a sin to talk to a person of low caste. They even avoided the shadow of person who was of low caste. The people belonging to a lower caste was not be allowed to hear the recitation of their sacred book
So, these are the reasons which forced the Muslims to demand for a separate homeland to live there according to the teachings of Islam.
1.      How were we, according to Liaquat Ali Khan, justified in our demand for Pakistan?
2.What did Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan expect of the American for the development and stability of Pakistan?
3. Why did the Muslim of India ask for a country of their own?

THE ECLIPSE
                                    Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf was a famous English novelist, critic and essayist. She was the daughter of a prominent Victorian critic, Sir Leslie Stephen. This essay, The Eclipse reveals her vivid observation and artistic description of details. This is her one of representative essays which shows her qualities and attitudes as a writer.
The essay in hand describes the scene of solar eclipse that lasted for twenty four second. It also projects the excitement of the people of England who were very eager to see the solar eclipse. It was a night in the month of June, when large number of people was travelling to the North. All of them wanted to reach Yorkshire by the early morning so that they could see the solar eclipse clearly. People had reached at the Euston Railway station from the different parts of the country. Everybody was up at that night. There was no fixity, no sleep in England at that night. They felt themselves related to the whole world .The crowd went on increasing as the people on the way were joining them.
Finally they reached the meeting place on a high fell. The ground was soft moorland .They sat down on the ground and some of them started eating while others were moving about. They looked like statue standing prominent at the ridge of the world. None of them had good appearance. Gradually the sun started rising and threw its golden grays on the ground. The sky was cloudy somewhat. Soon the sun started shining in full glory. And the snow began to melt. But in no time the clouds covered the sun. A game of hide and seek began between the sun and the clouds and it created suspense among the viewers. It appeared that the clouds tried to obstruct the path of the sun whereas the sun dashed forward to reach its goal.
The sun appeared again. Now the sacred twenty four seconds of eclipse had started. The sun had disappeared behind the moon and only a hollow sun was seen until the sun completely blotted out. There was then extreme chill and darkness everywhere. It seemed to be the end of the world. This horrified the viewers.
Soon, however, the eclipse was over and the sun repapered again filling the world with life and cooler. This observation gave the people a feeling that all the colours and beauty of the earth is owing to the sun. Without the existence of the sun, there would be no colour, no activity and no life on the earth.

What is the message of the essay, The Eclipse?
It is a beautiful descriptive easy written by world famous writer, Virginia Woolf. The message of the essay is quite simple and straightforward. The sun is the pivot of the solar system. Without the existence of the sun, all the colours of the world vanish and the world looks like a withered leaf. The world is dead without the sun.
This is proved buy the people of England who are going to Yorkshire, in the foot of a hill, to see the solar eclipse that would be of twenty four seconds only. There was great thrill and excitement over England. Everybody was up that night and the people were travelling to the North. They had reached the Euston railway station from there they would reach their final destination.
At last they reached the appointed place by the morning. Their appearance was not good. They waited impatiently for the rise of the sun. The sky was cloudy. This created suspense among them. At last , the sun rose , it threw its golden rays on the earth. A game of hide and seek began between the sun the clouds. Before the eclipse the world was looking very beautiful. The colors of the world were visible.
Now the sacred twenty four seconds began. The sun started disappearing behind the moon; only a hollow sun was looking. All the faces lost pleasures. The colors of the world disappeared. Darkness prevailed everywhere. The cold grew. The life lost its meaning .The world looked like a dead d leaf.
But then the sun regained its brightness and world was again full of colors and vigor.
1.      How specific is the writer about what she expected to see? Does she suggest these expectations without stating them?





WHISTLING OF BIRDS
D.H. Lawrence
D.H Lawrence is a famous English poet, novelist and critic. He is known for his love for nature. He was also a great moralist.
In ‘Whistling of Birds’, he expresses his natural feelings as well as his fascination for nature. The essay is a vivid description of the change from winter to spring. The writer describes first the cold and dull winter. Winter is a dull season as it kills the beauty of nature. It is the season of death and destruction and is also the season of inactivity. Everything turns yellow and brown in the harsh winter. The birds start dying in this season. It stops the whistling of birds. Death rules everywhere.
The transformation from winter into spring had hardly started to occur. The birds were also responding to this change instinctively.  They had stated singing and their songs were itself giving a message of the approach of the spring.. Although the torn remains of the birds could be seen scattered everywhere yet the whistling birds had forgotten the past and they were inclined only to herald spring season which was now setting in.  The death is unable to stop the onrush of life as winter was unable to stop the onrush of spring.
The writer is of the view that this change is a natural phenomenon and it is beyond our control. We can neither prolong winter nor hold back the spring. In the presence of winter, spring is absent as in the presence of life death flees away .They cannot co-exist. The same is the case with human life. We are also either happy or sad but we cannot be happy and sad together.
Whistling of Birds” shows writer s’ love for nature-discuss?
Lawrence very successfully describes the change of nature in this essay. Change of seasons is a phenomenon of nature. Nature goes on completing it life cycle round the year. Winter and spring are totally incompatible to each other. When there is winter, there is no sign of the spring season and when there is spring, there is no sign of winter. This journey of nature is going on parallel but in the two directions. Winter gives forth spring and spring gives forth winter.
This essay is highly symbolic one. Winter symbolizes death and destruction whereas spring symbolizes life and merry making. Winter is the season of inactivity while spring is the season of activity. In the winter, the leaves, grass, trees withered away whereas in spring all the objects of nature renew themselves. The objects of nature are at full bloom in the spring season although they were lashed badly by the harsh weather some months ago.
When there is harsh weather I.e. winter the birds start dying. They stop whistling and merry making. Their dead bodies are lying on the white snow as if they were eaten away by any wild beast. There is not even a single chirp on the side of the birds. Death is dancing everywhere. Death is ruling supreme. But suddenly warm winds start blowing from the sea. The weather starts changing. It is the arrival of the spring season. The trees give forth new leaves. The land is covered with green tide of grass. The birds start chirping. The whole area is filled with their songs and sounds. Now it is the rule of the life. The birds have totally forgotten their harsh past. They are responding to the change of nature. They are singing, dancing, and merry making and are enjoying the happy season.
Same is the case with humans’ life. We cannot be happy or sad at the same time. We are either happy or sad one. We cannot enjoy both the feelings at the same moment. So, we are quite right to say that the easy in hand shows writer s’ deep love for nature.

TAKING THE PLUNGE
Gloria Emerson
Gloria Emerson was a famous journalist. She worked as a foreign correspondent for the New York Times from 1965 to 1972.But besides being a journalist; she was the writer of the first water. It remained her strong desire throughout her life to do something extraordinary.
The essay, “Take the Plunge”, is a beautiful description of her personal experience of sky diving. . She focuses on the view point that the youngsters should overcome come their shyness to go ahead with great deeds. Now it has been proved scientifically that men and women are equal in all respects.
The write was the least suitable person for the sky diving as she was weak physically. She was not bold enough to do it at all. .  She had bad back, uncertain ankles. In spite of all this, she was dominant by the idea of doing something bold and thrilling and she decided upon sky diving.
The first U.S sports parachuting center was opened at Orange, Massachusetts seventy miles from Boston by an ex-marine Jacques Istle. He organized the first U.S jumping team in 1956. The writer was taken to this center on a May morning. This was a sky diving training center. The writer put on her kit and boarded a Cessna-180 plane with her companion who was also to jump. .The writer companion jumped first. Then it was her turn. She was horrified. She was tied up to an automatic opening device. Her instructor took her through the doorway and ordered her to jump out. . Her parachute opened at once and she found herself moving downwards to the earth with perfect ease and comfort. There was complete silence, no noise of the plane.  . Now she was feeling very happy. She looked down and saw the colorful earth. . Parachute became a toy in her hands. . She was fascinated and she wanted to remain in the air for a long time. . But she landed at a sandpit with a bump.
The same day she was taken to see James Gavin. Everybody was happy as well as surprised because she was the first lady who had jumped from the plane with the help of parachute.
What were Emerson s’ feelings throughout the essay, did those feelings change?
‘Take the Plunge’ is a beautiful essay written by a world famous authoress, Gloria Emerson.. She was basically a journalist. But she wanted to do something extraordinary in her life. At last she decided to jump through a plane with the help of a parachute.
She joined a training center and got necessary training. After that she wore the kit and boarded Cessna -180 plane with her companion who also was to jump with her. When the plane reached the height of 20,000 thousand feet, they were asked to jump. Her companion jumped first, but when her turn came she got nervous. She clung to the iron rod of the pane. . She wanted to go to the washroom. Her heart started throbbing rapidly. . She wanted to remove the heavy kit. . Her instructor yelled and said, Go”. At last she jumped the plane. First she heard the loud noise of the plane and the fast moving w gusts of wind. Her nose and eyes were discharging water. She was totally terrified.
But all of a sudden, her parachute opened with a jerk. The noise of the plane and air vanished. Parachute became a toy in her hands. The blue sky was looking very beautiful. ,. There was utter peace and comfort. The earth looked beautiful and colorful to her. Now, she wanted to stay in the air for a long time. But she was getting nearer and nearer to her destination.  At last, she landed on a sandpit. At the same time she was taken to see James Gavin. Now everybody was happy and surprised at her bold act.
It is proved that women are equal to men in all respects. Emerson was the least suitable person for a parachute jumping. But she did that and made every one surprise. She was a bold lady a courageous woman. No doubt that during all her venture, she could not focus on her feelings but over all she enjoyed it.
1.      Take the Plunge’ deals with human s’ desire to do something unusual?
2.      How does Emerson maintain the focus on her feelings throughout the essay? Do these feelings change?

NAGASAKI, AUGUST 9, 1945
Michaito Ichimaru
The essay , “ Nagasaki August 9, 195” ,  gives a graphic description of the horrible disaster  which was caused by the atomic blast. America dropped to atom bombs on the two cities of Japan to force them to surrender.  It was an extreme step by the Americans which caused unlimited death, destruction and misery for the Japanese.
The author was a student of medicine at the Nagasaki University of Medicine. He was one of the survivors of the atomic explosion. As an eye witness to the atomic explosion, he gives us description of the horrible destruction caused by the explosion. He is of the view that man should give up the use of his deadly weapon in future if, they want to save the word.
It was the beautiful and bright morning of August 9, 1945, when the writer departed for his medical college. But he came to know that his tram car had derailed, so he decided to go back to his hostel. This became the reason of his survival. . At 11 Am, a B-29 bomber plane passed overhead and dropped the atom bombs. The air flashed a brilliant yellow and there was a huge blast of wind. . In no time, the sky turned black and black rain started to fall. The writer ran downstairs to seek shelter in the toilet. . After a while, when he came to his sense, he came out. .He wanted to go to his medical college but could not go there as there were blasts of fire everywhere.  Many people were coming from Urakami. They were seriously injured and were in miserable plight with impression less eyes.
The next day, he was able to reach the targeted pace where his medical college was located.  He found that everything had destroyed. Only the skeletons of the buildings were left. There were dead bodies everywhere. He saw a large numbers of burnt bodies.
Most of his classmates had died. Some of them were still alive but they were unable to move their bodies. . Their clothes were in rages, bloody and dirty. The writer took them to their houses but all of them died in the following days. The causalities were so large in number that it was very difficult to dispose them all. So those were gathered in a huge pile and were burnt to ashes.
Discuss in details the large scale destruction caused by the atomic blast and what lesson the writer gives to the humanity?
The essay, “Nagasaki August 9, 195”, gives a graphic description of the horrible disaster which was caused by the atomic blast. America dropped to atom bombs on the two cities of Japan to force them to surrender.  It was an extreme step by the Americans which caused unlimited death, destruction and misery for the Japanese.
The author was a student of medicine at the Nagasaki University of Medicine.  He was one of the survivors of the atomic explosion. As an eye witness to the atomic explosion, he gives us description of the horrible destruction caused by the explosion.
It was the beautiful and bright morning of August 9, 1945, when the writer departed for his medical college. But he came to know that his tram car had derailed, so he decided to go back to his hostel. This became the reason of his survival. . At 11 Am, a B-29 bomber plane passed overhead and dropped the atom bombs. The air flashed a brilliant yellow and there was a huge blast of wind. . In no time, the sky turned black and black rain started to fall. The writer ran downstairs to seek shelter in the toilet. . After a while, when he came to his sense, he came out. .He wanted to go to his medical college but could not go there as there were blasts of fire everywhere. Many people wirer coming from Urakami  .
The next day, he was able to reach the targeted pace were his medical college was located.  He found that everything had destroyed. Only the skeletons of the buildings were left. . There were dead bodies everywhere. He saw a large numbers of burnt bodies. Most of his classmates had died. Some of them were still alive but they were unable to move their bodies. . Their clothes were in rages, bloody and dirty. The writer took them to their houses but all of them died in the following days. The causalities were so large in number that it was very difficult to dispose them all. So those were gathered in a huge pile and were burnt to ashes. Not even single leave was left at the mountain behind the college.
At the end of the essay, the writer draws a conclusion that we should ban the use of this deadly weapon in future. This is a beautiful world; we should try to save it for our upcoming generations.

WALKING ON THE MOON
David R. Scott
To land on the surface of the Moon was Americans’ political plan. They wanted to outdo The R.S.S.R in the mission to land first on the Moon. The American sent nine expeditions on the moon between 1969 and 1972. In the last expedition, two astronauts David R. Scott and James b. Irwin landed on the moon in the L.M. Falcon while their third companion Major Alfred Warden circled overhead in the spaceship, Endeavour.
The essay, Walking on the Moon” , has been written by David R. Scott and it projects his experiences on the moos.
There they explored the mountains by driving the Rover, a better operated jeep. They collected the different samples of rocks and soil of the moon weighing some 78.6 Kg. To describe the experience on the moon to the mankind was difficult for them, so they referred them to the experiences with which we are quite familiar on the Earth. They say that to drive the rover over the surface of the Moon was just like to steer a small boat on the surface of the rough sea.
To fall on the surface of the Moon was just like a child falls on the Earth, hurtles. Walking and stopping on the surface was quite difficult.  They felt a if they were walking on the trampoline. When they descended on the Moon, they felt themselves free. There their weight was reduced to one sixth of the Earth. As they moved forward they saw beautiful colors. There was perfect stillness on the Moon because of the absence of wind and sound. They made three visits on the surface of the Mon from the L.M and each of their expedition lasted for about seven hours. They did many experiments on the Moon. They dug and drilled its surface. The view of the Earth from the moon was splendid.
After completing their mission, they returned. They were filled with great pride. As a token of their expedition they left certain objects on the moon. For example, there they left a plate of aluminum bearing the name of spacecraft, the date of their mission and a list of crew. They also left a falcon feather, a clover, a statue of a man in the space suit, a metal plate bearing the names of those who laid down their lives for space mission and the Bible. David says that even today, looking at the moon arouses a feeling of nostalgia in him

Describe David R. Scott experiences in the Moon?
Physically sensation is quite different from than that of imagined one. To experience something new on the moon was a strange experience for the astronauts and to tell the same to the people was even more difficult. So, both the astronauts took the help from the same experiences with which the earth man s’ was quite familiar.
No doubt, some of the experiences quite resembled that of experiences being done on the earth. To drive the rover over the surface of the Moon was just like to steer a small boat on the surface of the rough sea.
To fall on the surface of the Moon was just like a child falls on the Earth, hurtles. Walking and stopping on the surface was quite difficult.  They felt as if they were walking on the trampoline. When they descended on the Moon, they felt themselves free. There their weight was reduced to one sixth of the Earth. As they moved forward they saw beautiful colors. There was perfect stillness on the Moon because of the absence of wind and sound. They made three visits on the surface of the Mon from the L.M and each of their expedition lasted for about seven hours. They did many experiments on the Moon. They dug and drilled its surface. The view of the Earth from the moon was splendid.
The Moon dust was like talcum powder, it was sticking. Its smell was like that of gun powder. When their space ship landed on the Moon, the storm of the Moon dust raised high and it took much time to settle down.  Their footprints remained permanent as there was no rain and wind over there. They left certain objects on the surface of the moon I.e. a plate of aluminum bearing the name of spacecraft, the date of their mission and a list of crew. They also left a falcon feather, a clover, a statue of a man in the space suit, a metal plate bearing the names of those who laid down their lives for space mission and the Bible. David says that even today, looking at the moon arouses a feeling of nostalgia in him.