18 Jul 2019

BA English All Course in Short

BA English Complete Notes

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The Killers
1.   The Killers is a short story written by World famous American writer Ernest Hemingway
2.   It was first time published in 1927 in The Scribner s’ Magazine.
3.   The themes of the short story are death, friendship and the purpose of life.
4.   It is a story of atmosphere, horror and suspense.
5.   Satire is a typical weapon of Hemingway in his all stories
6.   This story is a satire on the law enforcing American Agencies.
7.   In that society the criminals are moving freely whereas the good men like Anderson are confined to their rooms.
8.   Despite Anderson s’ lots of complaints, the criminals are not being arrested.
9.   Al and Max two killers are after Ole Anderson to kill him just to oblige their friend.
10. They make the crew of the restaurant hostage, use abusive language and create unbearable horror.
11.  Luckily Anderson does not come there on that particular day, the killers after waiting leave the place but leave a looming shadow of death.
12.  Nick Adams visits Anderson room to inform him about the danger but he does not pay much attention to him
Rappaccini s’ Daughter
1.      Nathaniel Hawthorne born in 1804 and died in 1864 was an American  short story writer
2.      This short story was first published in 1844.
3.      It is a fairy tale, a fantasy, a science fiction
4.      The story projects a conflict between good force and evil force
5.      The story is about a young beautiful maiden Beatrice, daughter of a botanic scientist  Giacomo Rappaccini
6.      The professor is a very callous and cruel ,he even puts his daughter s’ life at risk in order to add his scientific knowledge
7.      The short story also tells us about the deadly consequences of man s’ attempt of changing human s’ nature
8.      Love is the basic need of every human, one cannot resist it
9.      Rappaccini grows a garden of poisonous plants and he tends his daughter to look after this garden
10.  She also becomes poisonous and poison becomes her life element
11.  Unaware of all these facts ,Giovanni a young fellow who comes Padua University for study purposes, falls in love with her
12.  Giovanni observes that Beatrice has some terrible qualities, her breath kills flying insects
13.  His regular meetings with her make him poisonous
14.  Prof. Baglioni ,a well-wisher ,gives him antidote to remove effects of poison from Beatrice
15.  Beatrice takes that antidote and dies instantly, his father experiments take the life of his   own daughter.





New constitution
1.      Sadat Hassan Manto was born in 1912 and died in 1955.He was an Urdu fiction writer
2.      This short story has also been translated from Urdu to English
3.      In this Short story, “The New Constitution” Manto talks about the bitter truths of British Colonial system
4.      He very successfully projects the highhandedness, cruelty and callousness of the British soldiers on the common Indian including the Muslims
5.      Ustad Mangu, the Tonga wala is a type character; he is illiterate but knows much of political changes occurring in that era
6.      From a fare he hears that a new constitution is being promulgated on 1st April 1935 in India
7.      Mangu becomes so enthusiastic that he shares this news with all his friends
8.      He starts waiting impatiently for the appointed date, he also weaves some dreams in his mind
9.      His thinks that this cruel colonial system would end on the day when this new rule would be enforced
10.  Ustad Mangu hates the British soldiers from the core of his heart and he wants to get rid of them
11.  On the 1st April, he rises earlier than usual, sets his Tonga and comes on the roads of Lahore
12.  He sees no particular change, but he is still hopeful about the new constitution
13.  Under the pretext of new constitution, he picks up a row with the ‘gora’ soldier who had insulted him publically last year
14.  He lashes the gora soldiers mercilessly assuming that he is no more in rule as after some time a new constitution is going to be implemented
15.  He is arrested and is taken to the police station and is locked up. But all the time he is yelling ‘new constitution, ‘new constitution.’
16.  His all dreams shatter badly when he is informed by the officer that there is no new constitution but the same old constitution
Breakfast
1. It is a story that tells us about the simplicity and contentedness of a poor family who works as a cotton picker
2. The story pinpoints of the poor labourers who work hard for a little better living
3. The poor family is living in the lap of the nature and they are highly satisfied with their simple life style
4. Nature in itself is simple and teaches us the lesson of simplicity .A life of simplicity leads to a life of contentness
5. The writer happens to pass near a family living in a tent in a valley. He saw a woman who was making breakfast on an old rusty stove
6. The writer got close to take warmth, an old and a young man came out of a tent, and they said good morning to the writer and offered him breakfast
7. The woman set the breakfast; they started eating it with great relish. They took the breakfast and thanked Almighty God. The writer really enjoyed the breakfast
8. During the breakfast, they told the writer about their work and also told that they had even bought new clothes with their twelve days wages
9. When the writer was about to heave, they also offered a job to the writer but the writer thanked them and went away
10. The story is a criticism on urban materialistic life. The family is passing a peaceful life away from the rushed city life.

Take Pity
1. It is a short story which tells us of the unflinching struggle of a woman who strives to survive in life.
2. It also tells us that persons like Rosen try to exploit the situation.
3. Rosen is only taking pity on Eva; his all offers are not based o true love.
4. He adopts many ways to help her but she rejects her every offer as it is not based on true love.
5. Ways adopted by Rosen to help her
a. He sends her some dollars from other city under the fake name
b. He tries to give some eatables to Eva s' daughters
c. He proposed Eva to marry him.
d. He even asks her to marry the person of her choice and he will bear all the expenditures of the marriage.
e. He offers her his house free of rent.
f. At the end, he gets his will prepared leaving all his property to Eva and commits suicides but is saved.
6. But at the end both the characters show contrasted attitude.
7. First she rejects all his offers but in the end she goes to him.
8. Rosen even puts his life at risk for her but when she goes to him, he abuses her badly in response.
The Happy Prince
1.      The Happy Prince’ is a short story about a prince who lived happily in his palace
2.      The story is a severe criticism on Victorian Age
3.      It is a fantasy story full of ironic remarks and situations
4.      A fantasy is a story for away from the realistic approach of life
5.      Oscar has blended fantasy with the real problems of Victorian age
6.      In English history, the Victorian Age was a problematic era
7.      That age was full of many social and political problems
8.      In that age the rulers were quite callous and unaware of the problems of the common people
9.      The people were biased, hypocrites and flatterer
10.  When the Happy Prince was alive, he did not know of the miseries of the life
11.  After his death, his richly decorated having layers of gold and many precious stones studded statue, was fixed on a high columns in the middle of the city
12.  When he saw the miseries of the common people, he started weeping but being fixed, he was unable to help them
13.  He requested a migrating swallow to help him distributing all his gold and precious rubies and sapphires among the poor people
14.  Gradually the life standard started improving but statue lost is outward beauty
15.  Swallow died and statue was sent to foundry to be melted, the workers threw out his laden heart
16.  On God s’ command, the angel of the Heaven picked up the dead swallow and broken heart of the statue and placed them on a high place in Heaven

The Tell Tale Heart
1. There can be no second opinion in being it a horror story; the entire story is full of horrific scenes.
2. The story is following the Nazi theory: the things you don't like wipe them out from this world.
3. The old man is an innocent fellow with a physical deformity and that is not his fault.
4. He is being killed because of this physical deformity as one of his eyes resembles that of a vulture.
5. The young man very actively, on every night, goes to his chamber and on the eighth night, he was successful in his mission.
6. He disposed of the old man s' dead body very cleverly and was also successful in cheating the policemen.
7. But in the end, he could not bear the prick of his conscience and confessed his crime to the policemen.
8. When we see the way of his murdering the old man, we cannot say that the killer is an insane/abnormal person but when we know of his reason behind the murder, we can say that he is insane.

The Necklace
1. Sometime little single mistake costs the whole life.
2. Matilda Loisel is a beautiful woman, but she is not contented with her lot.
3. She always dreams of the life luxuries and wants to enjoy an aristocratic life style having fine and big house, long row of servants.
4. Being born in a family of clerks, she is married to a clerk by the name of Mr. Loisel who works as a clerk in minister of education office.
5. One day he brings an invitation card of a dance party at the minister s' home, he is also thrilled as the invitation is given to only a few selected persons.
6. He hands card to Matilda but she becomes sad and starts weeping because she has no fine costume.
7. Her husband gives her money, anyhow a good looking costume is arranged but she is again sad as she has no jewelry to wear on.
8. She borrows a necklace from her friend Madam Forestier.
9. Wearing new costume and borrowed necklace, she becomes queen at the ball, even minister wishes to dance with her.
10. The necklace is lost; they replace the necklace which costs them 36000 Francs of borrowed 18000.
11. Now it costs ten year to repay the loan, life becomes difficult for the couple, Matilda s' beauty is lost.
12.After 10 years ,she meets Madam Forestier and tells her the whole story, who is humbled to tell that her necklace was artificial costing no more than 500 Francs.

The little Willow
                                                                                    By Francis Tower
1.      It is a very beautiful story about silent love. The hero of the story is Simon whereas the heroine of the story is a young beautiful girl named Lisby. 
2.      The love each other but they do not express their love. Their love is only eye to eye and heart to heart.
3.      Courthouse is a place where the Army officers come to spend their holidays.
4.      Lisby s’ sisters Charlotte and Brenda are not sincere in love.
5.      When Simon Byrne comes there, Lisby looks at him and feels that he is his kind of person. 
6.      They both like each other and start loving each other in their hearts. But they do not express their love.
7.      When he is going to leave, Lisby gives him a little willow tree as a gift of love.
8.      Simon was killed in the war. At the time of death he was keeping the willow tree with him.
9.      When the war ends, the lovers of Brenda and Charlotte return. But Simon did not return.
10.  Once a guest tells Lisby that he was with Simon when he died. He tells that Simon loved the girl who had given him the willow tree. At that time Lisby tells him that Simon was her love.
11.  In the end of the story when her sister tells her that there is no letter for her, she tells her that she has received her letter.
12.  In this story, the willow tree is the symbol of love and purity of hearts.

Shadow in the Rose Garden
1.      This short story is about unfulfilled love of a woman.
2.      She could not marry the person she loved and could not love the person she married.
3.      She was in love with a military officer named Archie.
4.      Archie went to North Africa on a war mission. He was reported to have died due to sunstroke. On the very day the woman married the person but she could not love him.
5.      After three year of marriage, on her wife suggestion, they went to seaside for honey moon. 
6.      One day, she went out and reached the rose garden. The garden belonged to a rector s' family.
7.      The gardener stopped her and said that she was not allowed to enter the garden as it was not a public place.
8.      But on her request, he allowed her to stay for a little time in the garden.
9.      She entered the garden and looked at the house adjacent to the garden.  This was rector s' house and Archie was the rector s' son.
10.  She sat in the garden. Suddenly, she saw a shadow moving towards her. The shadow was in military uniform. She recognized that it was Archie.
11.  The shadow came and stayed in front of her. He tried to recognize her but could not as he had gone lunatic.
12.  The situation became painful and intolerable for her when she came to know that Archie had not died but still alive.
13.  Full of catharsis, she told all story to her husband. He came to know the real reason that why his wife could not love him.
14.  He took hat and left the room.
The Bear
1.      It is a farcical play full of fun and noise, in which action leads to no action
2.      Both the characters are contrasted and this contrast create fun and laughter
3.      Popova is a widow who after the death of her husband promises that she would never marry, go out of the house and would never meet any stranger
4.      From this one can guess that she is a very sincere and loyal woman
5.      But as the play progresses she goes against her promises and is ready to marry a person who visits her first time
6.      Smirnov is a retired military officer as well as a landlord, who visits Popova to take his 1200 Rubles back
7.      In the beginning he also shows himself as a determined man but soon he falls a victim of Popova s’ beauty and is ready to let his credit go
8.      Popova is not ready to pay the money and says that she would pay the money the day after tomorrow
9.      Smirnov says that he would take the money the same day as he is in dire need of money
10.  There starts a hot argument between the two and they decide to fight a duel to settle the issue
11.  In the meantime ,they both starts liking each other and are ready to marry
12.  So, both the characters behaves opposite to their talks

The Boy Comes Home
Bu A.A. Milne
1.      Allan Alexander Milne was a famous comedy writer who wrote this play at the end of First World War
2.      This one act play tells us about generation gap
3.      The older generation cannot impose their decision on the younger generation by force
4.      The older generation thinks that they are always right and they have full authority over the younger generation
5.      The younger generation is not ready to be led by the nose
6.      Uncle James, a so called strict person under the costume of fake strictness wants to teach a lesson to Philip
7.      Philip after serving the army for four years ,is now in leisure mood
8.      He is not ready to obey any command of Uncle James and goes on violating the rules and regulations made by Uncle James.
9.      Uncle James sleeps while waiting for Philip, in his dream he takes a severe attitude with Philip
10.  Philip also uses force against force, he takes out pistol and bomb from his coat pocket
11.  Seeing this, Uncle James becomes a wet cat and agrees to Philip arguments
12.  When the dream is over, then real Philip comes and agrees to Uncle James rules and regulations  and he wants to join his jam business

Something to Talk About
                                                                      By Eden Philpotts
1. At 3 A.M in the morning, a famous burglar wolf enters in Tudor Mansion to steal the precious gifts
2. Redchester s' family is a wealthy family that is passing a very dull and boring life, they have nothing to talk about
3. Wolf starts opening the safe, in the meanwhile Preston, the cook comes there and Wolf ties him up
4. After sometime Guy Sydney comes there Wolf got his hand up, soon they get familiar
5. On his request, Wolf allows him to call his sister Lettice who is very beautiful and a big fan of Wolf
6. Lettice comes there and gets familiar with Wolf, they start enjoying his act of theft
7. Soon Lord Redchester comes there and joins the party and starts enjoying
8. On the request of Lord Redchester, Wolf allows them to call Lady Redchester there
9. The whole family gathers there and starts enjoying the scene of opening the safe
10. Ultimately the safe is opened by applying the password which is told by Lord Redchester
11. Wolf takes out all the precious gifts and starts putting them in his bag
12. Now the greedy nature of the rich family awakes and they wish Wolf to leave their gifts
13. Uncle Bishop, a priest in a church uses his trump card and urges Wolf to break into their neighbor s' home 
14. Wolf is urged and after leaving the gifts goes away.
15. After his departure, the whole family cackles loudly and says, “At last, we have something to talk about."

Modern Essays                                        The Eclipse
1. In this modern essay, Virginia Woolf tells us the importance of the sun for our Earth and existence of life on it.
2. The humans' joys, pleasures, life and the colours of the world are due to the Sun, if there is no Sun, all the pleasures, joys and colours vanish.
3. On a beautiful June morning, the people were moving towards a hilly area in Northern England.
4. They gathered at the foot of a hill and the purpose of their gathering was to witness a total solar eclipse.
4. The villagers were amazed to see a large crowd and a country squire also joined the gathering with his four hunting dogs.
5. All the people were so keen to go as if they had some appointment to keep.
6. The Sun rose and spread its golden rays all over the valley making everything colourful and beautiful.
7. The weather was somewhat cloudy, there started a game of hide and seek between the sun and the clouds.
8. The sacred twenty four seconds started and the people witnessed a complete solar eclipse.   Darkness prevailed everywhere.
9. The world seemed to be dead during the solar eclipse.
10. From this incident, the writer drew a conclusion: the colours of the world are not permanent.

Whistling of Birds
1. It is a highly symbolic essay: the writer has used many symbols of nature, expressing his deep love for the elements of nature, he has very successfully expressed the cycle of life and death.
2. Summer and spring symbolize life whereas winter and autumn symbolize death and destruction.
3. Death, like life, is as inevitable as autumn and spring are inevitable. Both are opposite but are necessary in this life cycle.
4. Death cannot stop the onrush of life; likewise life cannot stop the onrush of death.
5. With complete incompatibility, these both factors go side by side.
6. Autumn causes death of the birds while spring causes whistle of the birds.
7. Life gives forth to death and death gives forth to life.
8. In the presence of death life flies away and in the presence of life death flies away.

Take the Plunge
1. By profession, she was a journalist but she wanted to perform some daring deed.
2. She decided to jump from a plane with parachute because it was the most soul satisfying sport in respect of proving someone as daring man or woman.
3. When her colleagues came to know of her decision, they made fun of her as she was the least suitable person for this job.
4. At the invitation of Jacques Istel who had opened a parachute jumping center, she went to Orange, Massachusetts.
5. It was the slogan of that center that parachute jumping is as safe as swimming.
5. In that center, she got the necessary training. She was boarded in a Cessna-180 plane with a male companion and she had to jump from the height of twenty thousand feet.
6. Her male companion jumped but she got nervous, she jumped unwillingly.
7. The parachute opened and she began to enjoy the scene and she was no more nervous now.
8. She wished to stay long in the sky but she was landed on a sandpit.
9. She was successful in her mission and proved, "If one is determined, one can do any impossible task."
10. She was taken to see General James Gavin who praised her act of courage.

Nagasaki August 9, 1945Important Points Discussion
1.  This essay gives a graphic description of the destruction caused by the atomic attack on Nagasaki, a city in Japan.
2.   As a result of this attack thousands of people died, buildings turned into debris, an unending misery started for Japanese.
3.  The author of this essay Dr. Michaito Ichimaru was one of the lucky survivors and was an eye witness of that destruction.
4.  His purpose of writing this essay was to tell the future generation of the horrible destruction caused by the use of atomic weapon.
5.   On the day of blast, he could not reach at his medical college as the tram car had derailed.
6.   Following are the destruction scenes:
           i. Due to the dense smoke, the sky got black and black rain started to fall.
           ii.The radiation was more than 7000 rads; as a result, there was extreme suffocation and heat.
           iii. On the mountain behind the college there was not even single blade of grass left. Fire was everywhere.
           iv. Buildings were razed to ground.
           v. Most of his college fellows died those who were alive, were unable to even blink their eyes and their faces were expressionless. They also died in the following days.
            vi. The dead bodies were so large in number that it was very difficult to dispose them off so they were gathered in a pile and burnt to ashes.
Message of the Essay:
The man should never use this deadly weapon in future, no matter what happens.

Walking on the Moon
David Scott
1.    It was political decision of America to land their man on the surface of the Moon
2.    They started their voyage to the Moon on 28th July 1971
3.    Two astronauts David R. Scott and James Irvin landed on the Moon while third companion Major Alfred Warden circled on the orbit sitting in the Endeavour
4.    Before landing they took twelve revolution around the Moon
5.    Each revolution took two hours, one hour at the day side of the Moon and one hour at the night side of the moon
6.    When their spaceship landed on the surface of the Moon, it raised a huge storm of the moon dust which blinded the space men for the time being
7.    To describe their physical sensation over the Moon, Scott created similarities with the actions done on the Earth
8.    Due to less gravity ,their weight reduced to 1/6 on the Moon
9.    To walk and to stop required more exertion and they walked as one was walking on trampoline
10. They fell on the surface of the Moon just like a child and remained unhurt
11. The movement of the Rover ,a battery operated jeep was like small ship on the rough sea
12. They dug different places on the Moon and collected some seventy two kg rock samples
13. Moon dust was as thin as talcum powder and its smell was like gunpowder
14. After spending 67 hours on the Moon they returned successfully to the Earth, they also left certain object as a token of their visit on the Moon
15. Scott becomes nostalgic when he sees Moon from the Earth


My Grandfather
1.      In this essay W.B Yeats give the character sketch of his grandfather-William Pollexfen
2.      Yeats says that in his childhood he remained sad but with the passage of time it vanished
3.      His maternal grandfather was a strict person, he had formed many strict rules and regulations in his home and it was necessary for all to follow these rules
4.      Grandfather belonged to an old Cornish family and his father was a military men and mother was a Wexfordian woman.
5.      Grandfather was a very strong fellow and he never asked anyone to do any work which he himself could not do.
6.      Once there was a problem in the rudder of the ship, grandfather asked the captain to remove it, on his refusal the grandfather himself dived into the water and removed the problem
7.      He always had a hatchet with him kin case of any burglar
8.      Falcon s’ shipwreck and the Bible were his favourite books.
9.      He had a railway pass but its misuse was not allowed by him.
10.  As per his order the keys of the stable yard were given to him at 8 pm sharp but it was never locked
11.  Contrary to that writer s’ grandmother was very kind, once she gave something for eating to the writer b/w the meals
12.  At every night, carrying a candle she circled round the house to release any thief from grandfather.

My Tailor
1.      It is a humorous essay in which Leacock sketches his tailor
2.      He is in contact with his tailor for the past 30 years, he considers him as an immortal object
3.      For the past thirty year ,there is not even a slight change in the postures of his tailor
4.      He welcomes the writer with his usual smile and starts his discussion with the weather
5.      He has always only two kinds of cloth Tweed and Serge in his shop
6.      He shows the cloth to the  writer on his bended leg standing on the other
7.      His measuring tape is always hanging in his neck and he always measures the writer only from his chest
8.      He asks his assistant to add half an inch in the measurements, just to flatter the writer
9.      One day, tailor is not in his shop, on asking, he is informed that tailor has died
10.  The writer is not ready to believe in this news as he thought the tailor an immortal object
11.  He further knows that his business was not going well which became the cause of his death
12.  The tailor was a religious person, and a good flute player, he had a wife and a daughter

Beauty Industry
1.      The only industry which remained unaffected during the economic depression of 1929-34 was beauty industry
2.      The American women spend more than 156 million dollars in a year that is more than       double revenue of India budget in a year.
3.      With passage of time, the women of America prospered and they started decorating their faces and body with beauty products.
4.      The women became freer and freer and also status conscious.
5.      In America and all over the world the old ladies are becoming antique as they garnish their bodies with beauty enhancing products.
6.      Huxley is of the view that the beauty got by the use of beauty products is an artificial beauty
7.      This artificial beauty has no attraction at all
8.      Artificial beauty is like the beauty of China porcelain jar which is beautiful outwardly but is full of dead flies, rotten leaves and ill smelling slime
9.      He met with two women in a hotel who fulfilled all the standard of beauty but they did not have moral as well as the beauty of the character
10.  He says that if there is social justice, peace in the society, the people will be healthy and beautiful
Are Doctors Men of Science?
1.      Shaw s' attitude in this essay mocking one, he makes fun of the false pretensions of the medical field
2.      It is a wrong concept in the society that people think that doctors are scientists
3.      Shaw says that the doctors are not the men of science
4.      The work of a doctor is quite different than that of a scientist
5.      Doctoring is an art and it is the art of curing the diseases
6.      The same work is being done by the quacks, herbalists, charmers  and fortune tellers.
7.      These quacks are making more money than that of qualified one
8.      Shaw is of the view that the only difference between the qualified and the quacks is that the qualified has the authority to sign the death certificate of the patient whereas the quack does not have this authority
On Saying Please
1.      Good manners are key to success in life
2.      Bad manners are not a legal offence.
3.      No law allows us to kick back the person who misbehaves with us.
4.      Good manners and bad manners are like infection, create a chain of reactions.
5.      If any burglar beaks into house, one is allowed to hit him but if any one injures the
feelings of any one, law is silent.
6.      The attitude of the lift man is not appreciable because he retaliates bad manners 
with bad manners.
7.      The bus conductor has made his life easy by showing good manners.
8.      Everybody waits for his bus and loves to travel with him 

Hosts and Guests
1.      Max Beerbohm was a famous essayist, parodist and cartoonist
2.      In this essay, he describes the qualities of the hosts and guests in a humorous way
3.      He divides the human beings into two major categories: hosts and guests
4.      This difference is not circumstantial but of temperamental
5.      Being a host is a positive instinct whereas to be a guest is a negative instinct
6.      The quality of hospitality developed slowly with the development of civilization
7.      The history of hospitality is full of painful incidents
8.      Jael s’ treachery, Odysseus killing of his guests and Romans poisoning their guests ,all are condemnable
9.      The Scottish, in history, first honoured their guests
10.  At present, it is thought that a rich is normally a good host while a poor is normally a good guest
11.  A natural host cannot be a guest while a natural guest cannot be a host, it is a matter of temperament
12.  The writer of this essay himself was good guest but often he entertained his guest

Super
1.      It is a beautiful short essay written by Anonymous.
2.      In this essay, he criticizes the excessive use of the word super
3.      Today every businessman and manufacturer is using this word with their products
4.      Super soap, super chocolate but reality is worse, these products do not have the super qualities
5.      They are misusing this word super in order to sell their products
6.      Nietzsche was the first man who used the word superman after that G.B. Shaw also used this word
7.      The past men had super qualities, character wise they were noble and good people
8.      The present man lacks good character and they are using word super with their things
9.      People not the things matter the most, people should have good character, they should be super men
The Vitamins
1.      This essay is an extract from Dr.Kenneth Walker s’ book ‘Human Physiology’
2.      In this essay, he tells us the importance of vitamins for a healthy life
3.      Human body needs some essential elements to function properly
4.      The excess of vitamins can also cause may diseases
5.      There are two major types of vitamins some are fat soluble and some are water soluble
6.      The fate soluble include A, E and D and are found in meat, cod liver oil and low in vegetables
7.      Their deficiency causes stunted growth, weak immune system and infertility
8.      Water soluble are B and C, and are found on green vegetables, lemon and oranges
9.      Their deficiency also causes many diseases like rickets, beriberi and pellagra`
10.  Many essential vitamins go waste during mill processing

The Old Man and the Sea      Symbolic Importance
1.      Santiago is the symbol of the human beings
2.      Fish is the symbol of goals , desires and aims in life
3.      Sharks are the symbol of problems and difficulties in life
4.      Manolin is the symbol of youth and courage
5.      Skeleton of the Marlin is the symbol of useless degrees and medals
6.      Sea is the symbol of the world

Philosophy of the novel
1.      Success and failure are two important aspects of life
2.      Success and failure are interlinked
3.      To gain something is not success
4.      To lose something is not failure
5.      Both the success and failure depend on continuous struggle
6.      If a man goes on struggling , he is not at failure
7.      If a man gives up struggle, he is at the failure
Themes of the novel
1.      It seems that more than fifty themes are working in the novel
2.      But some themes seem to be prominent
3.      Successful and failure are inevitable in life
4.      To gain or to lose anything is not success and failure
5.      Continuous struggle matters in life
6.      Alone man is nothing in this world, he needs support of others to succeeds in life
7.      Fate plays an important role in man s’ life

Major story of the novel
1.      Santiago s’ search for fish
2.      Santiago s’ fight with the fish
3.      Attacks of sharks on the Marlin
4.      Old man s’ fight with deadly sharks
5.      Santiago s’ hand wrestling contest with a Negro
6.      His life on the shore and his life at the sea

Major interests of the old man
1.      Fishing is his major interest
2.      Talking to Manolin thrills the old man
3.      He loves  baseball and loves to listen the commentary on radio
4.      Dreaming about lions is also his major interest
5.      Hand wrestling is also the interest of the old man

Ending of the novel
1.      Some critics say that ending of the novel is not justified
2.      One school of thoughts say that the ending of the novel is quite justifies
3.      Those who say that the ending is not justified they give the logic of hard struggle of the old man
4.      Those who say that the ending is quite justified that give logic of Hemingway s’ philosophy
5.      The old man struggled hard so he deserved to gain the fruit of his efforts
6.      To gain something is not success but continuous struggle is success
7.      Sharks deprive the old man of the fruit of his struggle but they could not shatter and stop old man s’ determination and struggle



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